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Methodologies & Theories

Overview

The field of education has it's share of methodologies and theories that attempt to explain the process of learning. All theories are representations or attempts to detail a complex process. As such, theories are open to much debate and disagreement.

For instructors, online or classroom, the goal is effective learning - and often various contradictory theories (i.e. instructional design and constructivism) work together well to achieve results. A functioning understanding of theories allows an instructor to experiment and apply various teaching/learning concepts...and, through this process, to create a personal philosophy of learning and "best practices".


Resources

General Emotional Intelligence Multiple Intelligence Learning Styles Brain-based Learning Adult Learning Theory

General

Theory Into Practice
An excellent listing of educational theories.

12 Theories of How People Learn
Good list

Learning Theories
"Why does it seem so difficult to differentiate between three basic theories of learning? Why do the names of theorists appear connected to more than one theory? Why do the terms and strategies of each theory overlap?"

Constructivism, Instructivism, and Related Sites
"The struggle between student-centered and teacher-centered approaches has a long history. Constructivism is often related to the philosophies of Dewey and Rousseau, and inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky. Instructivism is related to faculty psychology, behaviorism, and to the research-based programs of the last few decades known as process-product pedagogy, such as the work of Bereiter and Rosenshine."

A Constructivist Approach to Online Training for Online Teachers
"This article examines the pedagogical role of the teacher in online education. Specifically, the transition from in-class room instruction to online instruction is a complex one involving specialized training in the technical aspects of delivering quality educational materials (or environments) to the students, and specialized training in how to foster knowledge acquisition within this new environment. The article focuses on the pedagogical training that an online instructor needs to become an effective teacher."

Theories
Broad overview of learning, curriculum, instruction, assessment, and organization.

Pedagogy/Androgogy
Various sites and resources listed.

The Web: Design for Active Learning
"This handbook will present the idea of interactivity as it applies to a cohesive design including high interface, content, and instructional design."

Teaching Models
"Teaching models prescribe tested steps and procedures to effectively generate desired outcomes. In general, models can be classified along a continuum from instructor-directed, to student-instructor negotiated, to student-directed."

Glen Hammond's "Course Design and Development"
Excellent resource - motivation, brain-based learning, teaching, emotional intelligence, etc.

Motivation
"The teacher's role has changed in recent years. There has been a shift of emphasis from instructional techniques to developing learning techniques. Our role is no longer that of the "sage on the stage". Today our role leans more towards facilitator or "guide on the side". Our role is to increase student motivation and develop the skills or strategies that make a student more competent and to structure the learning environment so that students are able to take ownership of their own learning."

Bloom's Taxonomy
Extensive links.

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Emotional Intelligence

Glen Hammond's Resources
Excellent

Emotions and Emotional Intelligence
"This page is an on-line bibliography in the area of emotions and emotional intelligence, describing current research findings and notes of interest."

EQ
"...the internet's leading directory of Emotional Intelligence / EQ / EI sites, sources, and organizations. Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities essential to personal and organizational effectiveness."

6seconds
" Six Seconds EQ Network teaches emotional intelligence skills to create positive and productive relationships in schools, homes, and organizations around the world."

CASEL
"CASEL will enhance children's success in school and life by promoting coordinated, evidence-based social, emotional, and academic learning as an essential part of education from preschool though high school."

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Multiple Intelligence

Glen Hammond's Resources
Good overview of MI

INTELLIGENCE IN SEVEN STEPS
"The concept of intelligence, a very old one, has been employed in the most varied ways over the centuries. During the past century, there has been considerable movement on the "intelligence front," and this trend shows no sign of abating. In this essay I briefly describe seven historical steps, or phases, in the development of thinking about intelligence, focusing in particular on work inspired by the Theory of Multiple Intelligence."

Project Zero
"Project Zero's mission is to understand and enhance learning, thinking, and creativity in the arts, as well as humanistic and scientific disciplines, at the individual and institutional levels."

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Learning Styles

Learning Styles
"A key to getting (and keeping) students actively involved in learning lies in understanding learning style preferences, which can positively or negatively influence a student's performance (Birkey & Rodman 1995; Dewar 1995; Hartman 1995).

Learning Styles & Multiple Intelligence
Overview, resources, links, and quizzes. It is worth noting that many sites lump learning styles and multiple intelligence together - they are different. Learning styles describe how a person learns...multiple intelligence explains how a person is smart.

Learning to Learn
Great resource site.

Explanation of Learning Styles
" Knowing your learning style will help you develop coping strategies to compensate for your weaknesses and capitalize on your strengths. This page provides an explanation of what learning styles and multiple intelligence are all about, an interactive assessment of your learning style/MI, and practical tips to make your learning style work for you."

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Brain-based Learning

Glen Hammond's Resources
Excellent description of a brain compatible classroom.

Jensen Learning Corporation
Focuses on various brain-based learning resources (also seminars and workshops)

The Brain Connection
"BrainConnection.com is dedicated to providing accessible, high-quality information about how the brain works and how people learn."

Brain-Based Learning Design Principles
12 principles for designing with the brain as a focus point.

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Adult Learning Theory

Adult Learning Theory
"According to Moore and Kearsely, most distance education students are adults between the ages of 25 and 50. In order to effectively design courses meant for adult students, it is necessary to understand how adults learn, and especially how their needs differ from those of children."

Guidelines for Working with Adult Learners
Quick overview of main concepts of adult learners.

Adult Education Theory - Resource Guide
Links to journals, articles, resources

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All links verified June 2005.

   

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